This work examines how the individual player moves toward a religious enlightenment through sport. It argues that this spiritual enlightenment is uniquely her or his own without the trappings of doctrinal creeds or traditional religious discourse. The spiritual dimension of sport is examined from a 'non-confessional' point of view (unique human experience per se is emphasized); no association with any religion needs to be made. This is in contrast to a 'confessional' approach to sport and spirituality studies (understandings of sport within specific religious traditions). How does sport serve as spiritual practice in the life of the individual, especially for the person who may not actually have any religious affiliation? Among sports included in the book are sky diving, motorcycle riding, long distance running, spelunking, scuba diving and solo sailing. Each sporting orbit or topos is then amplified by analogy with myths and rituals from world religions where applicable. Autobiographical testimonies of sporting people are used to suggest how sport can be bonafide spiritual practice. The argument is that lives are empowered not by brute strength and tenacity alone, but also by sustaining personal coherence within the lived experience of one's sporting activities.
A Companion to American Sport History presents a collection of original essays that represent the first comprehensive analysis of scholarship relating to the growing field of American sport history.
Awarded 2015 Best Anthology from the North American Society for Sport History (NASSH)
The Middle East is one of the fastest growing and significant markets in world sport, as well as a powerful source of investment in sport. Bids for the Olympics in 2020 and the soccer World Cup in 2022, as well as remarkable investments in Formula One motor racing, horse racing and English Premier League soccer clubs, demonstrate the strength of interest, the depth of resource and the technical expertise maintained by sport business interests in the region.
Sport Management in the Middle East is the first book to offer a serious and in-depth analysis of the business and management of sport in the region. Written by a team of world leading researchers in Middle Eastern sport, and illustrated in full colour throughout, the book examines the importance of sport in the Middle East and introduces its particular management processes, structures and cultures. As well as providing an overview of the region's sporting strategy and key stakeholders, the book also offers a number of detailed case-studies of sport in individual Middle Eastern countries. A unique guide to sport management in a region of fundamental importance in world sport, this book is essential reading for any serious student or scholar of sport management, sport business, Middle East studies, or sport and society.
In clear, easy-to-grasp language, the author covers many of the topics that you will need to know in order to launch and run a successful business venture.
When solving real-life engineering problems, linguistic information is often encountered that is frequently hard to quantify using "classical" mathematical techniques. This linguistic information represents subjective knowledge. Through the assumptions made by the analyst when forming the mathematical model, the linguistic information is often ignored. On the other hand, a wide range of traffic and transportation engineering parameters are characterized by uncertainty, subjectivity, imprecision, and ambiguity. Human operators, dispatchers, drivers, and passengers use this subjective knowledge or linguistic information on a daily basis when making decisions. Decisions about route choice, mode of transportation, most suitable departure time, or dispatching trucks are made by drivers, passengers, or dispatchers. In each case the decision maker is a human. The environment in which a human expert (human controller) makes decisions is most often complex, making it difficult to formulate a suitable mathematical model. Thus, the development of fuzzy logic systems seems justified in such situations. In certain situations we accept linguistic information much more easily than numerical information. In the same vein, we are perfectly capable of accepting approximate numerical values and making decisions based on them. In a great number of cases we use approximate numerical values exclusively. It should be emphasized that the subjective estimates of different traffic parameters differs from dispatcher to dispatcher, driver to driver, and passenger to passenger.
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